Cookit Homepage Cookit is published by e2bn

History Cookbook

Georgian/Regency Picture Gallery Family, Home & Social   
Georgian/Regency Picture Gallery Settlements and Trade  
Georgain/Regency Picture Gallery Government and Society

1
The Georgian period began in 1714 and was named after the kings
The Georgian and Regency period lasted 123 years.  
It began in 1714, with George I, and ended in 1837, when the young Queen Victoria ascended the throne. More
2
More issues were debated in Parliament than fought over in the battlefield
The early Georgian period was more peaceful and stable than the Stuart era. 
Government had reached the point where struggles between groups were generally carried out in the Houses of Parliament, rather than on the battlefield. More
3
The Agricultural Revolution was well under way
The Agricultural Revolution was well under way. 
New farming techniques, crops and machinery saw more food produced. The enclosure of common land resulted in bigger, more productive farms but many poor people lost their rights to village land.  More
4
There was a dramatic expansion of British trade abroad.
Abroad it was a time of dramatic expansion in British commerce, territory and power.
By the end of the era, Britain was the undisputed superpower of the day with a vast empire. More
5
Ships of the merchant navy carried goods across the world.
There was great rivalry with France and other nations for overseas trade.
Ships of the merchant navy carried commerce as far as South America and China. London’s influence stretched far wider than the British Empire: it was the commercial and industrial capital of the world. More
6
The character of many towns changed with new housing and commercial premises
In mid-Georgian England, most towns were still small but new buildings were changing the character of many. 
Large areas of London were developed in the classic Georgian style. Towns such as Bath and Bewdley took on their modern appearance, with buildings characterized by proportion, balance and symmetry. 
More
7
The Transatlantic Slave Trade grew rapidly
The British Transatlantic Slave Trade grew rapidly during the period.
Slave ships left ports in Britain for West Africa, carrying goods that were exchanged for enslaved Africans, who were shipped across the Atlantic to labour in plantations in the Caribbean and America.  More
8
The profits from slavery helped finance the Industrial Revolution
The profits gained from slavery helped to finance the Industrial Revolution.
Wealth flowed into Britain and saw the development of financial institutions and the factories and technologies that underpinned the industrial revolution. More
9
The Industrial Revolution brought great changes
The start of the Industrial Revolution brought great changes.
The way in which millions of people lived and worked was transformed. New technologies based on water and steam power created new ways of working, and destroyed old ones.  More
10
Areas were transformed by new factories - blast furnaces lit the iron making town of Coalbrookdale.
Some parts of Britain became transformed by the arrival of large, machine-driven factories.
After the invention of the efficient steam engine, these great buildings started belching out smoke whilst creating huge wealth for the nation as a whole. More
11
A small number of wealthy landowners dominated society
However, Georgian society was still dominated by about 200 immensely wealthy landowning families.
Each of these families owned thousands of acres. They had many servants and lived in stately homes surrounded by well-laid out grounds. Most belonged to the hereditary nobility and had seats in the House of Lords.  More
12
The gentry had smart houses and were very influential in the House of Commons
Below them were several thousand lesser landowners, the gentry. 
Gentry families usually owned several hundred acres and lived in houses that reflected the tastes of the time. They also had lots of influence, particuarly in the House of Commons. More
13
New wealth saw the rise of a middle class of merchants and business men
The rise in wealth saw British society re-shaped with the rise of a large, urban middle class. 
The middle classes consisted of merchants, lawyers and doctors and below them were the artisans and craftsmen. More
14
People with ‘new money’ were challenging the old order, buying houses just as grand
Many of the newly prosperous merchants wanted to become part of the ruling aristocracy.
These people were using their new-found wealth to buy large amounts of land and build grand houses. More
15
Further down the social ladder were the waged labourers and artisans
Further down the social scale came the farm labourers, domestic servants, workmen, soldiers and sailors.
For these people, their only income was their wages. Usually there was enough work for them to do – until they fell into ill-health or old age. More
16
Criminal gangs were common and there was a growing fear of crime
At the bottom of the social heap were the paupers.
Paupers depended on handouts from the Parish to live. This class included criminal elements as well as those who had fallen into permanent poverty. Criminal gangs were common and there was a growing fear of crime as the era progressed. Punishments, if caught, were harsh. More
17
The most important part of the year for the rich was the London Season.
For the rich, the most important part of the year was the 'London Season'.
It began with the opening of Parliament in March and lasted until late June, when the rich returned to their country homes.  More
18
Rich Gerogian houses were showpieces for entertaining
Rich Georgian houses were show-pieces for entertaining.
Airiness, space and light were desirable features in the Georgian home. Rooms were decorated with intricate mouldings, decorative objects, elegant fireplaces, chandeliers made from glass and delicate furniture. More
19
Fashion, art and music were very important
The Georgians paid great attention to fashion, art, sport and music.
A Georgian gentleman was meant to display his wealth elegantly and provide lavish entertainments for his guests. He was also meant to be skilled with a weapon, an excellent horse-rider, good at driving a carriage, and dancing. A gentlewoman should be accomplished at both art and music. More
20
A new way of thinking arose based on science and rational thinking
The Georgian period was also known as the 'Age of Reason' or the 'Enlightenment'
A new way of thinking arose around the concept that authority, behaviour and beliefs should be based on reason and rational scientific explanations. People were eager to explore new ideas, without fear of being accused of treason or heresy. More
21
Improvements in printing saw the spread of written information
Improvements in printing techniques saw the spread of written information.
Printing became quicker and cheaper. The first successful English daily newspaper, The Daily Courant, published from 1702 to 1735, was soon followed by others. The contents of these publications were debated in the coffee houses across the country. More
22
The period saw the formation of the United States of America and the French Revolution
The American war of Independence was followed by the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.  
The Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars, fought with France, cast a shadow over the end of the 18th century.  The rich and powerful were afraid that a revolution would also happen in Britain.  More
23
The end of the period saw poor working conditions and new slums developing
At the end of the 18th century, areas of slums were springing up in the towns.
The miserable conditions in the slums were just like those described by Dickens, in the later Victorian times.  Work in the factories did not require much skill and children often provided cheaper labour than adults.  More
24
For many poor families, life was worse than it had been for a long time
The Industrial Revolution made many people rich but, for many poor families, life was worse than it had been for a long time.
Towns and cities grew very quickly, as more people moved from the countryside to find work. In the worst slums, the poorest people suffered awful poverty and crippling diseases. More
25
The early 19th centrury saw protests and riots
The late 18th century and early 19th century saw protests and riots.
The harsh economic climate, due to the Napoleonic Wars, and the degrading working conditions in the new factories caused much unrest, with uprisings against the new machines and the government. More
26
People were pressing for political reform
Ordinary people wanted more say in the running of the country and were pressing for political reform. 
Reform finally came in 1832 with ‘The Great Reform Act'. The Act granted seats in the House of Commons to large cities that had grown up during the Industrial Revolution, and increased the number of people who could vote to one in five of the population. More
27
In the last years of the Georgian era, new railways were being built
In the last years of the Georgian era, railways were being built through the length and breadth of Britain.
These would soon bring the industrial age to all corners of our islands. By the end of the Georgian period, although new industries and technologies were changing everyday life, most of the population was still living in the pre-industrial age. This would soon change.  More

Rosemary and Parmesan Mini Muffins
Preheat the oven to 200°C / Gas Mark 6 / Fan 180°CStrip the rosemary sprig of all its...