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Processes

This section provides podcasts to show you how to carry out some of the main processes used in cooking.

Processes

Baking,RoastingBain Marie

A bain marie is  a water bath made by putting a pan or bowl of food over a pan of hot water which should be kept at just below boiling point. It is used to melt food or to keep delicate...

BakingBaking - Cakes

To bake means to cook in an oven using dried heat; it is the usual method for cooking bread, cakes and pastries. This podcast looks at baking a cake.Further pictures -...

Baking,RoastingBaking (Roasting) - Meat

To bake means to cook in an oven by dry heat; when cooking meat this is also known as roasting.  Further pictures - Baking (Roasting)...

RoastingBasting

To baste means to moisten meat, poultry or game during roasting or grilling by spooning over the juices and melted fat in the tin. Further pictures -...

Beating

Beating means mixing ingredients together quite vigorously using a wooden spoon, fork or hand mixer. Here the cook demonstrates beating eggs.Further pictures -...

Binding

Binding means adding a liquid, such as beaten egg or melted fat, to a dry mixture to hold it together. Here the cook demonstrates binding using beaten egg.Further pictures -...

Blanching

Blanching is using boiling water (either by plunging food in boiling water or by placing food in cold water and then bringing to the boil) to achieve one of a number of things. These...

Blind-baking

Blind-baking refers to the process of baking a pie crust without the filling. It is used when the filling cannot be baked with the pie, such as a cream pie, or when the filling...

Bolting Flour

To bolt flour means to pass it through a fine cloth to ensure an even, light texture.Further picture - Bolting

Braising

Braising means to cook food in a small amount of liquid in a tightly covered pan. The food is simmered in the pan and may be browned before braising.

Breadcrumb making

This involves taking stale bread and making it into very small pieces that can be used to make puddings or to coat foods.Further pictures - Making...

Browning meat

To brown means to place food, such as meat in a pan or under a grill and make brown or golden by lightly frying or grilling.Further pictures -...

Chilling

To chill means to cool food without freezing it.Further pictures - chill

Chopping

To chop means to cut food into small pieces using a knife or food processor. Here the cook demonstrates chopping food finely and coarsely.Further pictures -...

Coating

To coat means to cover food that is to be cooked with flour, eggs, batter or breadcrumbs, or to cover food with a thin layer of sauce. Here the cook demonstrates coating prawns in...

Coring Apples

This means removing the centre of an apple, usually before chopping or cooking.Further pictures - Coring

Creaming

To cream means to beat butter and sugar together using a fork, wooden spoon or hand mixer until the mixture is smooth and pale.Further pictures -...

De-seeding

De-seeding means removing the seed or pips from fruits or vegetables such as peppers. In this podcast, the cook de-seeds peppers and chilli.Further pictures...

De-stoning - fruit

This simply means removing the stones from fruits such as plums and apricots before using in cooking or before eating.Further pictures -...

De-stalking or hulling - fruit

This is simply removing the stalks from fruit and vegetables before using them in cooking or eating them.Further pictures - De-stalking or...

Dicing

Dicing means to cut food into small blocks. This may be done to make it look good or to ensure even cooking. The small pieces of food also allow the spread of flavour and texture throughout the...

Draining

To drain means to pour off water from cooked foods using a colander or strainer. Here the cook demonstrates draining vegetables.Further pictures -...

Dropping Consistency - creating this

Making a dropping consistency means making a mixture (as in cakes) of a consistency that drops off the spoon.Further pictures - Dropping...

Dropping spoonfuls

Dropping spoonfuls means to place roughly even amounts of mixture on a baking plate using two spoons or a spoon and spatula. Here the cook demonstrates dropping a meringue mixture, which is quite...

Dry frying

Dry frying is heating food in a pan without using any fat or oil. It can be used for foods such as nuts and, particularly, spices, as it helps to release the flavour of many spices.Further...

Folding in

Folding in is to mix in gently an ingredient (usually flour) using a spatula or wooden spoon, so that any air in the mixture is not removed.Further pictures - Folding...

Frying or sweating down

To fry is to cook a food in hot oil or fat. Shallow frying uses a small quantity of fat in a shallow pan. The food is turned so that all sides are evenly cooked. Deep frying is when the...

Gelatin - using this

Gelatin (or gelatine) can be used in sweet and savoury cooking to set food, but care needs to be taken to make sure the water is not too hot when melting this, so that it will set properly.Further...

Glazing

To brush dough or pastry with egg yolk or milk so that it looks golden and shiny when baked.

Grating

Grating means to rub food on a grater to produce fine shreds.Further pictures - Grating

Grilling and toasting

To grill means to cook by direct radiant heat or flame. The heat is usually from one source and the food needs to be turned to ensure it is evenly cooked.Further pictures - Grilling and...

Grinding

To grind means to reduce hard foods, such as nuts or spices, to fine particles using a pestle and mortar, grinder or blender. Grinding changes the texture and also releases the flavour....

Greasing

Greasing is brushing a baking tray or cake tin with oil, or rubbing it with butter or lard, to stop food from sticking.Further pictures -...

Icing

Icing is applying a decorative sugar mixture to the surface of a cake or pastry.Further pictures - Icing

Infusing

Infusing is extracting flavour from spices and herbs by covering with boiling water and leaving to stand. The liquid is later strained.Further pictures -...

Joining pastry

Joining pastry is using water to make the pastry edges moist and pinching them together so that the filling does not leak out.

Julienne cut vegetables - making these

A julienne is a type of cut that makes a long thin strip. It's a good technique to use for vegetables when good presentation is important, such as raw in salads. Julienne cut vegetables also...

Kneading

Kneading is working bread dough (using the base of the palm of the hands) on a board so that is becomes smooth and elastic.Further pictures -...

Lining a cake tin

Lining a cake tin is putting greaseproof paper, or similar, into a tin before adding the uncooked mixture, so that, when baked, the cake does not stick and can be removed from the tin more...

Marinating

Marinating is soaking food in a marinade (a liquid usually containing oil, wine or vinegar and seasoning).Further pictures -...

Mashing

Mashing is reducing food to a soft, pulpy mass, by beating or applying pressure. Here the cook demonstrates mashing carrots.Further pictures -...

Measuring - with cups

Cups are used to measure a volume of ingredients. Measuring cups come in a range of sizes but are not suitable for measuring bulk foods, like chopped vegetables or shredded cheese, and are usually...

Measuring - liquid

Measuring jugs are used to measure liquids. You need to be careful to check the measurement at eye level and to ensure the jug is placed on a flat surface to make sure the measure is...

Measuring - using spoons

Spoons are also used for measuring. You will often see in recipes reference, for example, to 1 x teaspoon or 1 x tablespoon. It is also important to understand the difference between a level, rounded...

Melting

To melt is to applying heat to an ingredient to change it from a solid to a liquid state. Many recipes ask you to add or melt a 'knob' or small amount of butter. Here the cook demonstrates this.

Peeling

Peeling is using a sharp knife to remove the outer layer of fruit and vegetables. Here the cook demonstrates peeling carrots.Further pictures -...

Poaching

To poach is to cook in an open pan in simmering liquid. Here the cook demonstrates poaching salmon.Further pictures -...

Pouring - cake mixture into a tin

Here the cook demonstrates transferring the cake mixture from the mixing bowl to the tin.

Preheating

To preheat is to warm the oven to a desired temperature before cooking the food. Preheating is important in some recipes, so that you do not throw out the cooking times. Most cooking...

Proving

Proving means leaving dough to rise in a warm place before baking. Further pictures - Proving

Pureeing

Puree means to press food through a fine sieve or to use a blender or processor to make a smooth thick mixture.Further pictures -...

Reducing

This means to lessen the volume of a liquid by rapid boiling in an open pan.Further pictures - Reducing

Rolling out - pastry

Rolling out is using a rolling pin to flatten pastry dough into a thickness and shape suitable to make pies, pastries or biscuits. You need to sprinkle flour onto a surface, before rolling...

Roux Sauce - Making

Roux sauce is a basic sauce to which other ingredients can be added. It is made by mixing together fat and flour in a hot  saucepan and then carefully stirring in milk and heating...

Rubbing in

This involves rubbing butter into flour, using the tips of the fingers, to produce a mixture that looks like breadcrumbs.Further pictures - Rubbing...

Salting

Salting invoves adding salt to food to draw out the moisture. It can be done for a number of reasons, including to preseve the food or to improve the flavour.Further pictures -...

Seasoning

Seasoning is adding salt and pepper to food to make it more tasty.

Separating an egg

Separating an egg means carefully removing the white of the egg from the yolk -either one, or both, may be required for a recipe. Here the cook demonstrates how this is done.Further pictures -...

Shredding

Shredding is slicing or tearing food into fine pieces with your hands, a knife or coarse grater.Further pictures - shredding

Sieving or sifting

Sieving or sifting is removing any lumps from sugar or flour by putting it through a mesh; it also can be used to add air to a mix.Further pictures - Sieving or...

Simmering and boiling

To simmer is to cook a liquid in a pan so that it bubbles gently but does not boil. To boil is to cook in a liquid at a temperature of 100 c or 212 f. In this podcast, the cook demonstrates the...

Soaking

Soaking is placing food in a liquid, usually water, and leaving it in so that the food absorbs the water and becomes softer and easier to eat or cook.

Steaming

Steaming is cooking food in the steam from rapidly boiling water. The food is held in a separate container, usually placed above the container holding the water. The water does not come in...

Stir frying

Stir frying is cooking quickly by stirring food in a small amount of hot fat or oil.Further pictures - Stir frying

Testing - Meat

Testing is particularly important, especially if cooking meats like chicken. A sharp knife is put into the centre or thickest part of the meat and the juices are allowed to run down the blade. If the...

Testing - vegetables

Testing is making sure that food is properly cooked and ready to eat. It is usually done by putting a sharp knife into the food (vegetables or meat) and feeling the amount of resistance (i.e. how...

Thawing

Thawing is defrosting frozen food until it is completely unfrozen, so that it is ready to cook. It is very important to making sure that food is properly and evenly cooked.Further pictures...

Thickening

Thickening is adding an ingredient such as cornflour to a stew, sauce, gravy or soup and heating, whilst stirring with a spoon, until it is thick enough to coat the spoon.Further pictures -...

Top and tail - vegetables

This simply means removing both ends of the vegetable, i.e the end that was joined to the stalk and also the tip of the vegetable.Further pictures - Top and...

Tossing

To toss is to throw the food with a light motion, often used for salads to make sure that the dressing and components of the salad are distributed evenly.Further pictures -...

Turning out - Controlled melt

Turning out by using a controled melt is used for foods such as jelly. It simply means placing the jelly mould, for a very short while in warm water so that the very outer layer of the jelly melts...

Washing - fruit

It is important to wash the skin of fruit or vegetables before using them, if they are not going to be peeled. Here the cook demonstrates this.Further pictures -...

Weighing

To weigh is simply to measure or determine how heavy an ingredient is, by using a scale or balance. Here the cook demonstrates weighing flour.Further pictures -...

Whisking

To whisk is to beat a mixture very hard to add air, so that the mixture becomes thick, using a balloon whisk or an electric hand mixer.Further pictures -...


Memy tried Steamed Chocolate Pudding